understanding parkinson's disease

Understanding Parkinson’s Disease

Symptoms and Treatment Options

Parkinson's Disease is a neurological disorder that affects the movement of an individual. The condition affects the brain, leading to a gradual loss of dopamine-producing cells. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter responsible for regulating movement in the body, and a lack of it can cause tremors, stiffness and difficulty with balance and coordination. Parkinson's is a progressive disease, meaning that the symptoms worsen over time. This article will help with understanding Parkinson's disease; let's take a look.

Stages of Parkinson’s

Parkinson’s Disease has five stages that are measured by the Hoehn and Yahr scale.

Stage One: Mild Symptoms

In the first stage, the symptoms are barely noticeable and may affect only one side of the body. Tremors, rigidity and other symptoms are mild, and the individual can still perform daily activities without significant limitations.

Stage Two: Moderate Symptoms

In the second stage, symptoms become more noticeable and affect both sides of the body. Tremors, rigidity and slowness of movement become more evident, and the individual may experience difficulties with walking or balance. However, the individual can still perform daily activities independently.

Stage Three: Significant Impairment

In the third stage, the symptoms become more severe, and the individual experiences significant impairment in balance and coordination. Falls are more common, and daily activities become more challenging. However, the individual can still perform daily activities with assistance.

Stage Four: Severe Symptoms

In the fourth stage, symptoms become severe, and the individual requires assistance with daily activities. The individual may experience significant tremors, rigidity, and slowness of movement, and may require a wheelchair or walker to move around.

Stage Five: Advanced Symptoms

In the final stage, the symptoms are the most severe, and the individual may become bedridden or require constant nursing care. The individual may also experience hallucinations, delusions and dementia, which can significantly affect their quality of life.

Symptoms of Parkinson’s

The symptoms of Parkinson's Disease can vary from person to person, but some common symptoms include tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia, and difficulty with balance and coordination.


Tremors are involuntary shaking or rhythmic movements that can affect the hands, arms, legs, face, and other parts of the body. They tend to occur when the individual is at rest and can worsen with stress, fatigue or excitement. Tremors can make it difficult to perform fine motor tasks such as writing or using utensils and can interfere with daily activities.


Rigidity is a stiffness in the muscles that makes moving limbs difficult. It can affect various muscle groups, including those in the arms, legs, neck and torso. It can make it difficult to initiate movement, and movements may be slow or jerky. Individuals with rigidity may also experience muscle pain or cramping, which can make the stiffness worse.


Bradykinesia is a hallmark symptom of Parkinson's Disease characterized by slow movements and a reduced ability to initiate movement. Individuals with bradykinesia may have difficulty with activities that require fine motor control, such as buttoning a shirt or writing with a pen. They may also have trouble with gross motor movements, such as walking or standing up from a seated position. This can lead to a reduction in overall mobility and an increased risk of falls.

Difficulty with Balance and Coordination

Difficulty with balance and coordination is a common symptom of Parkinson's Disease that can significantly impact an individual's mobility and quality of life. Individuals with this disease may experience a range of balance and coordination issues, including difficulty with walking, standing up from a seated position, turning, and maintaining posture. They may also experience freezing episodes, where they suddenly stop moving and feel as though their feet are glued to the ground.


There are several medications available to treat Parkinson's Disease, but the most commonly used are Carbidopa and Levodopa.


Levodopa is a medication that is converted into dopamine in the brain. It helps to relieve the symptoms of Parkinson's Disease, such as stiffness, tremors, and slowness of movement. However, Levodopa can cause nausea, vomiting, and low blood pressure in some individuals. It is often used in combination with Carbidopa to alleviate these side effects.


Carbidopa is a medication that works by preventing the breakdown of Levodopa before it reaches the brain. This allows more Levodopa to reach the brain, which can help to reduce the symptoms of Parkinson's Disease. Carbidopa and Levodopa are usually taken together, and the combination is known as Sinemet. Sinemet is available in various strengths, and the dosage will depend on the individual's needs and the severity of their symptoms.

Other Medications

Other medications used to treat Parkinson's Disease include dopamine agonists, which mimic the effects of dopamine in the brain. These medications are usually used in the early stages of Parkinson's Disease or combination with Carbidopa and Levodopa. However, these medications can cause hallucinations, confusion, and compulsive behavior in some individuals.

Anticholinergics are another class of medication used to treat Parkinson's Disease. These medications help to reduce tremors and muscle stiffness by blocking the effects of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that can worsen Parkinson's Disease symptoms. However, anticholinergics can cause dry mouth, blurred vision, and constipation in some individuals.

Final Notes

Living with Parkinson’s can be challenging, but with the right treatments and support, many individuals can lead fulfilling and active lives.

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